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This page lists selected published peer-reviewed scientific articles on eyewitness identification and face recognition by Professor Tim Valentine.

Links are provided to Acrobat (pdf) files of a pre-publication copy of the articles, where available. Acrobat reader is required to read these files. A copy can be downloaded from the Adobe website via this link: 

To find a published document using a DOI: Copy the DOI of the document you want to open, open in your browser, enter the entire DOI citation in the text box provided, and then click Go. The document that matches the DOI citation will display in your browser window although you may have to pay for access.
BOOK:    Valentine, T. & Davis, J. P. (2015). Forensic facial identification: Theory and practice of identification from eyewitnesses, composites and CCTV. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. View it on Amazon.


Davis, J. P., Valentine, T. & Wilkinson, C. M. (2012). Facial Image comparison. In: Wilkinson, C. & Ryan, C. Craniofacial identification. (pp. 136-153).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davis, J. P., Valentine, T. & Davis, R. E. (2010). Computer assisted photo-anthropometric analyses of full-face and profile facial images. Forensic Science International, 200, 165-176. Download 601K pdf file. DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.04.012

Davis, J. & Valentine, T. (2009). CCTV on trial: Matching video images with the defendant in the dock. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 482-505. Download 959K pdf file. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1490

This article by a colleague at Goldsmiths is recommended:

Allen, R (2008). Exact solutions to Bayesian and maximum likelihood problems in facial identification when population and error distributions are known. Forensic Science International, 179, 211-218. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.05.010 Download 395K pdf file.

Eyewitness identification.

Davis, J. P., Valentine, T., Memon, A.  & Roberts, A. J. (2015) Identification on the street: a field comparison of police street identifications and video line-ups in England, Psychology, Crime & Law, 21, 9-27, DOI: 10.1080/1068316X.2014.915322

Roberts, A. J., Davis, J. P. Valentine, T. & Memon, A. (2014). Should we be concerned about street identification? Criminal Law Review, 633-654.

Valentine T. (2014). Estimating the reliability of eyewitness identification.  In: Perfect, T .J. & Lindsay, D. S. (eds.). Sage handbook of applied memory. (pp. 579-594) Sage: London.

Davis, J. P., Valentine, T., Memon, A. & Roberts, A. J. (2014).  Identification on the street:  A field comparison of police street identifications and video lineups in England. Psychology, Crime & Law. DOI: 10.1080/1068316X.2014.915322

Hobson, Z, Wilcock, R. & Valentine. T. (2013). Multiple suspect showings: A survey of police identification officers. Policing, 7, 79-87. DOI:10.1093/police/pas021

Valentine, T.,  Davis, J. P, Memon, A. & Roberts A. (2012).  Live showups and their influence on a subsequent video lineup. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 1-23. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1796

Valentine T. (2012). Identification evidence. In: Davies, G. & Beech, A. (eds.). Forensic Psychology: Crime, Justice, Law, Interventions. (2nd ed.) (pp. 267-285.) Chichester Wiley- Blackwell.

Valentine, T. & Maras, K. (2011). The effect of cross-examination on the accuracy of adult eyewitness testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 554-561. Download 213K pdf file. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1768

Valentine, T., Davis, J. P., Thorner, K., Solomon, C., & Gibson, S. (2010). Evolving and combining facial composites: Between-witness and within-witness morphs compared. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 61, 72-86

Bull, R., Valentine, T. & Williamson, T. (2009). (Eds.) The handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing. Chichester: Wiley.

Valentine, T., Hughes, C. & Munro, R. (2009). Recent developments in eyewitness identification procedures in the United Kingdom. In: Bull, R., Valentine, T. & Williamson, T. (eds.) The handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing. Chichester: Wiley. (pp.221-240).

Valentine, T. & Mesout, J. (2009). Eyewitness identification under stress in the London Dungeon. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 151-161. Download 199K pdf file. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1463

Darling, S., Valentine, T., and Memon, A. (2008). Selection of lineup foils in operational contexts Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 159-169.. Download 193K pdf file. Fig 1. Fig 2. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1366

Valentine, T, Darling, S. & Memon, A. (2007). Do strict rules and moving images increase the reliability of sequential identification procedures? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 933-949. Download 311K pdf file. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1306

Davies, G. M. & Valentine, T. (2007). Facial composites: forensic utility and psychological research. In: R.C.L. Linsay, D.F. Ross, J.D. Read & M. P. Toglia Handbook of eyewitness psychology. Volume 2: Memory for people. Mahwah: LEA (pp. 59-83). Download 371K pdf file.

Valentine, T., Darling, S., Memon, A. (2006). How can psychological science enhance the effectiveness of identification procedures? An international comparison. Public Interest Law Reporter, 11 21-39. Download 271K pdf file.

Valentine, T. (2006). Forensic facial identification. In: Heaton-Armstrong, A., Shepherd, E., Gudjonsson, G. & Wolchover, D. (eds). Witness Testimony; Psychological, Investigative and Evidential Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Download 326K pdf file.

Valentine, T., Pickering, A. & Darling, S. (2003). Characteristics of eyewitness identification that predict the outcome of real lineups. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 969-993 Download 199K pdf file. DOI: 10.1002/acp.939

Valentine, T., Harris, N. Colom Piera, A. & Darling, S. (2003). Are police video identifications fair to African-Caribbean suspects? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 459-476. Download 106K pdf file. Download unpublished data for individual lineups. DOI: 10.1002/acp.880

Davies, G. M. & Valentine, T. (1999). Codes of practice for identification. Expert Evidence, 7, 59-65. Download 20K pdf file

Valentine, T. & Heaton, P. (1999). An evaluation of the fairness of Police line-ups and video identifications. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, S59-S72. Download 55K pdf file DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(199911)13:1+3.0.CO;2-Y

Coxon, P & Valentine, T. (1997). The effects of the age of eyewitnesses on the accuracy of their testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11, 415-430. Download 194K pdf file DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(199710)11:5<415::AID-ACP469>3.0.CO;2-A

Face Recognition.

Valentine, T. (2001). Face-space models of face recognition. In: M.J. Wenger & J.T. Townsend (eds.) Computational, geometric, and process perspectives on facial cognition: Contexts and challenges. Mahwah: LEA (pp.83-113) Download 687K pdf file

Newell, F. N., Chiroro, P. & Valentine, T. (1999). Recognising unfamiliar faces: The effects of distinctiveness and view. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52A, 509-534.

Valentine, T.  (1998). Real faces and proper names: The psychology of recognising people. Inaugural lecture series. Goldsmiths College: New Cross, London.

Valentine, T., (1995). Cognitive and computational aspects of face recognition: Explorations in face space.  London: Routledge.

Valentine, T., Chiroro, P. & Dixon, R. (1995). An account of the own-race bias and the contact hypothesis in terms of a face space model of face recognition. In: Valentine, T., (ed.) Cognitive and computational aspects of face recognition: Explorations in face space.  London: Routledge.

Other forensic areas.

Leslie, O., Young, S., Valentine, T. & Gudjonsson, G. (2007). Criminal barristers' opinions and perceptions of mental health expert witnesses. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 18, 394-410. Download 100K pdf file.

For a full list of publications visit Tim Valentine's homepage.

For a full list of Viv Moore's publications visit Viv Moore's homepage.